A reader writes:
So....At times things eat at my mind, it makes me good at some things, but at other times it just stresses me out. I thought you might have a point of view that would be reasonably sane on my dilemma. Though I acknowledge it's something that is far from your field of expertise, but you may have an idea... Just because radioactivity is cool.
So my flatmate visited Chernobyl. I thought that was kind of cool, but we somewhat agreed they'd discard their shoes and clothes afterwards (see where this is going? ;)
The tour got pretty close, they were standing within 100m of reactor 4. The digital Geiger counter was registering 4 mSv/h (I zoomed in on a photo.... will check that again at some point). Most of the tour group stayed on paved ground, though in some places quite broken. A few ignored the tour guides and were wandering around on the somewhat radioactive grass at one point near reactor 4. They ate at a nearby cafe, visited some of the local sites driving around in a small bus, then left the exclusion. On leaving they each went through some kind of radiation measuring device, it looked like a big metal arch, you put your hands on the sides of a console at head height and your face was pretty close to something, no one set that thing off. Though no one was really sure what it was measuring, or if your shoes were included.
Said flatmate spent another week travelling before returning to Australia, along with their Chernobyl clothes and shoes. The tour operators seem to think no special precautions needed to be taken with clothes and shoes after leaving.
Do you think particulate matter bought back poses a health risk worth worrying about? I made them leave their shoes outside the house....But on their clothes packed in the same bag as their shoes, it seems inevitable that some radioactive isotopes have made it inside. Though, they're only a problem if I inhale or digest them, damn cesium. I do acknowledge that I'm already host to unstable isotopes of carbon in measurable amounts.
I recently, fortuitously, bought a nice enough Miele vacuum cleaner which I hope effectively implements its HEPA filter.
Unfortunately I'm cynical enough about our own government's competence to have serious doubts as to whether the Ukrainian government has enforced effective safety procedures. Especially given the USSR's history at this site...
Summary, before I start talking about ways in which radiation can kill you horribly: Radiation is almost certain not to kill you horribly. Those clothes, especially the shoes, may be detectably contaminated, but they're very unlikely to be dangerously contaminated. And if they've been worn and washed a few times since the visit, contamination may not even be detectable any more. Even if you did big shoe-fetishist sniffs all over your flatmate's sneakers as soon as they got home, you'd probably still be at much greater risk from everyday non-radioactive air contamination.
Like you, I wouldn't have much faith in the dedication of Ukrainian Chernobyl-tour outfits to customer safety. Lord knows the Western world's airports are now full of staggeringly expensive "security" hardware that doesn't bloody work at all, so a country with a GDP per capita a sixth that of Australia, and with the usual ex-Soviet wall-to-wall government corruption, could be worse. But the tours are a regular event now, so even the defective imaginary-terrorist-obsessed Western world's governments would probably have noticed people coming back with shoes that glow in the dark.
Plus, I'm sure plenty of people have taken their own Geiger counters with them on these tours, and yet the most newsworthy result of a trip to Chernobyl remains that chick who pretended to have taken a solo motorcycle tour.
On the subject of Geiger counters, I think it's important to mention that if you decide to get yourself your very own ionising-radiation meter, be aware that there are two basic kinds on the consumer market. Both may be sold as "geiger counters", but only one of them is.
A geiger counter can measure low levels of radiation. You can, for instance, use a geiger counter capable of detecting alpha particles (which many can't) to verify that a lump of unremarkable granite measures above (but probably nowhere near dangerously above) the background level of radiation. (Unless your house is built on granite!)
The other kind of radiation meter is the "ion-chamber survey meter", which is much less sensitive. If the needle on a survey meter ever budges, you should get the hell out of there. Survey meters are only meant to be used in places with high radiation levels, like serious nuclear accidents or after an actual nuclear war.
A lot of cheap eBay radiation meters are the distinctive yellow US Civil Defense versions, which come in geiger and ion-chamber versions. If it's pleasingly cheap, it's probably a useless ion-chamber meter.
(Note also that if Australians buy a geiger counter from overseas, it may not make it through Australian Customs, especially if it comes with a mildly radioactive calibration object.)
It is unlikely that any Chernobyl/Pripyat tours go anywhere remotely hot enough to get a reading from an ion-chamber meter, though you may be able to see places that'd be hot enough, like the secured, deserted scrapyards where they parked the emergency vehicles used during the disaster, or particularly choice parts of the Red Forest.
And yes, dirt or otherwise broken ground around Chernobyl is in general more radioactive than hard surfaces, because rain washes particulates off roads and footpaths and buildings onto soil, where they accumulate. Chernobyl is a particularly delightful test case for this phenomenon, because the combination of the reactor's design and the astonishing fuck-ups that led to the disaster meant that the Chernobyl accident caused a roaring fire in its graphite moderator, spewing a vast plume of radioactive smoke into the sky and raining particulate fallout over a huge area.
(The far less disastrous Windscale fire happened in a graphite-moderated reactor too, but it was the fuel burning that time, not the moderator.)
The recent TEPCO disaster in Japan has released an amount of radioactive material comparable with Chernobyl. The Fukushima Daiichi reactors don't have much burnable stuff in them, though, so most of the escaped isotopes are just sitting around in the neighbourhood of the reactors, or washed away into the ocean where tedious scientists say they're diluted out of significance but we all know they'll really wake up Gojira.
I am, of course, kind of winging it on this answer, because I am indeed not what you'd call an expert on the particular perils of tramping around in the Zone of Exclusion. (I'd probably walk straight into an anomaly and die.) I invite readers to tell me what I've overlooked, and thereby scare the tripes out of Roscoe.